November 5, 2014

Re-treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection After Relapse: An Open-Label Pilot Study Re-treatment of Chronic HCV Genotype 1 Infection After Relapse

Original Research | 4 November 2014

Anu Osinusi, MD; Anita Kohli, MD; Miriam M. Marti, BS; Amy Nelson, RN; Xiaozhen Zhang, MS; Eric G. Meissner, MD, PhD; Rachel Silk, RN; Kerry Townsend, BA; Phillip S. Pang, MD, PhD; G. Mani Subramanian, MD, PhD; John G. McHutchison, MD; Anthony S. Fauci, MD; Henry Masur, MD; and Shyam Kottilil, MD, PhD

[+-] Article and Author Information

Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(9):634-638. doi:10.7326/M14-1211

Background: The interferon (IFN)–free regimen of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 24 weeks was recently approved to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT-1) infection for patients ineligible for IFN. However, sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapy is associated with relapse in 15% to 30% of patients with HCV GT-1. Neither the mechanism of relapse nor the optimal re-treatment strategy for these patients is defined.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in patients with chronic HCV GT-1 that relapsed after sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapy.

Design: Phase 2a, open-label study. ( NCT01805882)

Setting: Single U.S site.

Patients: 14 patients with HCV GT-1 that relapsed after treatment with sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 24 weeks were re-treated with sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 12 weeks.

Measurements: HCV RNA concentration and population sequencing to detect NS5B S282T mutations.

Results: All 14 patients treated with sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 12 weeks achieved a sustained virologic response, including 7 with advanced liver disease (Knodell Histology Activity Index score of 3 or 4) and 1 with a detectable NS5B S282T mutation after sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapy. Sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir was well-tolerated with few adverse events. Four grade 3 events (elevated serum creatinine in a patient with baseline renal insufficiency, hypercholesterolemia, and hypophosphatemia) occurred. There were no grade 4 events or treatment discontinuations.

Limitation: Small sample size.

Conclusion: The fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir was efficacious in a small cohort of patients with HCV GT-1 that relapsed after sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapy, even in the setting of advanced liver disease. Larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary efficacy results.

Primary Funding Source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, and Gilead Sciences.


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