Dig Dis Sci. 2013 Nov 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
BACKGROUND: Among patients with diseases such as HIV, cancer and mental illness, perceived stigma is common and is linked to quality of life (QOL), depression and healthcare-seeking behavior.
AIMS: We aimed to determine the prevalence and consequences of stigma in patients with cirrhosis.
METHODS: A survey was developed and mailed to 300 patients with cirrhosis from a variety of etiologies. Among the 149 respondents, stigma was measured using a composite of previously validated scales. Correlates of stigma were measured using an a priori theoretical construct in order to investigate hypothesized consequences such as impaired social support, depression and reduction in healthcare-seeking behavior.
RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of respondents chose "agree" or "strongly agree" for at least one of the 18 stigma-related questions, indicating they felt stigmatized in at least one aspect of their lives. Patient factors associated with more perceived stigma on multivariable linear regression included younger age (p = 0.008), and hepatitis C (p = 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.01) as the etiology of liver disease. Patients with higher levels of perceived stigma had less social support (r 2 = 0.898, p < 0.001), were less likely to seek medical care (r 2 = 0.108, p < 0.001), suffered from more depression (r 2 = 0.17 p < 0.001) and had worse QOL (r 2 = 0.175, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stigma is common among patients with cirrhosis, and is associated with adverse attitudes and behaviors such as decreased healthcare-seeking behavior. Healthcare providers need to be aware of these perceptions and their potential impact on patients' interaction with the medical system.
PMID: 24248421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]