By: MARY ANN MOON, Clinical Endocrinology News Digital Network
Among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, viral factors such as viral load and HCV genotype "did not play any significant role in the causation of acute kidney dysfunction events" but known nonviral risk factors did, according to a report published online in the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology.
In a retrospective cohort study involving 468 patients with chronic HCV (mean age, 50 years) enrolled during a 1-year period at a single hepatology clinic and followed for 6 months to 3 years, 124 episodes of acute kidney dysfunction developed in 63 patients.
Such dysfunction was significantly more likely to develop in those who had comorbid diabetes (47.6% prevalence, compared with 16.5% prevalence in nondiabetic participants), hypertension (69.8% prevalence, compared with 38.8% prevalence in nonhypertensive participants), or a history of IV drug use (44.4% prevalence, compared with 29.4% prevalence in nonusers), said Dr. Sanjaya Kumar Satapathy, who was with the division of gastroenterology at New York Medical College during the study, and his associates.
"Acute volume depletion secondary to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and large-volume paracentesis accounted for the major bulk of patients with acute kidney dysfunction. ... In addition, infections (n = 23) and GI bleeding (n = 9), the majority of which occurred in patients with advanced liver disease, appeared to play a significant role in developing acute kidney dysfunction," the investigators wrote (J. Clin. Exp. Hepatol. 2014 [doi:10.1016/j.jceh.2014.01.004]).
In contrast, the prevalence of acute kidney dysfunction showed no relation to baseline viral load; viral genotype; or the patient’s sex, race, body mass index, HIV status, or history regarding alcohol abuse. A total of 68 of the 124 acute kidney dysfunction events (54.8%) resolved completely, with serum creatinine returning to baseline levels; there was partial recovery in another 34.7% of the events, and the remaining 10.5% of cases progressed to either chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease.
Although acute kidney dysfunction is a well-known complication of cirrhosis and liver failure, most cases in this study (76%) developed in patients who did not have decompensated or advanced liver disease, noted Dr. Satapathy, who is now with the University of Tennessee, Memphis, and his associates.
No funding sources or potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.