Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Article in Press
published online 28 May 2013.
Background & Aims
Little is known about whether dietary cholesterol affects disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
We analyzed data from the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis trial, which included patients with advanced fibrosis and compensated cirrhosis. Cholesterol intake was determined for 608 participants on the basis of responses to food frequency questionnaires, administered at baseline and 1.8 years later. We investigated whether cholesterol intake was associated with clinical progression (death, variceal bleeding, encephalopathy, ascites, peritonitis, Child–Turcotte–Pugh score ≥7, or hepatocellular carcinoma) or histologic progression of disease (an increase in Ishak fibrosis score of 2 or more points in a second liver biopsy compared with the first).
After adjustments for age, sex, race, presence of cirrhosis, body mass index, treatment with peginterferon, lifetime alcohol consumption, smoking, health status, and coffee and macronutrient intake, each higher quartile of cholesterol intake was associated with a 46% increase in the risk of clinical or histologic progression (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.87; P for the trend = .004). Compared with patients in the lowest quartile of cholesterol intake (32–152 mg/day), those in the 3rd (224–310 mg/day; AHR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.45–5.51) and 4th quartiles (>310 mg/day; AHR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.22–6.16) had significantly increased risk of disease progression.
On the basis of analysis of data from the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis trial, higher dietary cholesterol intake is associated with higher risk of disease progression in HCV-infected patients with advanced fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis.
Abbreviations used in this paper: AHR, adjusted hazard ratio, BMI, body mass index, CI, confidence interval, CTP, Child–Turcotte–Pugh, FFQ, food frequency questionnaire, HALT-C trial, Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis trial, HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma, HCV, hepatitis C virus, MTP, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, TLR, toll-like receptor